Maria Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born Maria Gloria
Macaraeg Macapagal on April 5, 1947) is a Filipina politician. She
is the fourteenth and current president of the Philippines. Arroyo
is the country's second female president, and the daughter of late
former Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal. She is a direct
descendant of the Lakandula rulers of the ancient Luzon Empire.
A professor of economics, Arroyo entered government in 1987, serving
as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade
and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino. After
serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice
presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an
opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she
resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and
Development and joined the growing opposition to the president, who
faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced from office by peaceful
street demonstrations, and Arroyo was subsequently sworn into the
presidency on January 20, 2001. She was elected to a full six-year
presidential term in her own right and was sworn in June 30, 2004.
President Arroyo was born Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal to
politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife, Evangelina Macaraeg
Macapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado "Boboy" Macapagal, Jr.
& Cielo Macapagal-Salgado. She spent the first years of her life in
Lubao, Pampanga with her two older siblings from her father's first
marriage. At the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal
grandmother in Iligan City. She stayed there for three years, then
split her time between Mindanao and Manila until the age of 11. She
is fluent in English, Tagalog, Spanish and several other Philippine
In 1961, when Arroyo was just 14 years' old, her father was elected
as president. She moved with her family into Malacañang Palace in
Manila. A municipality was named in her honor, Gloria, Oriental
Mindoro. She attended Assumption Convent for her elementary and high
school education, graduating valedictorian in 1964. Arroyo then
studied for two years at Georgetown University's Walsh School of
Foreign Service in Washington, D.C. where she was a classmate of
future United States President Bill Clinton and achieved consistent
Dean's list status. She then earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in
Economics from Assumption College, graduating magna cum laude in
In 1968, Arroyo married lawyer and businessman Jose Miguel Arroyo of
Binalbagan, Negros Occidental, whom she had met while still a
teenager. They had three children, Juan Miguel (born 1969),
Evangelina Lourdes (born 1971) and Diosdado Ignacio Jose Maria (born
in 1974). She pursued a Master's Degree in Economics from the Ateneo
de Manila University (1978) and a Doctorate Degree in Economics from
the University of the Philippines (1985). From 1977 to 1987, she
held teaching positions in different schools, notably the University
of the Philippines and the Ateneo de Manila University. She became
chairperson of the Economics Department at Assumption College.
In 1987 she was invited by President Corazon Aquino to join the
government as Assistant Secretary of the Department of Trade and
Industry. She was promoted to Undersecretary two years later. In her
concurrent position as Executive Director of the Garments and
Textile Export Board, Arroyo oversaw the rapid growth of the garment
industry in the late 1980s.
The young Gloria Macapagal (far right) and her family; when this
picture was taken, her father Diosdado was the President of the
Arroyo entered politics in the 1992 election, running for senator.
At the first general election under the 1987 Constitution, the top
twelve vote-getting senatorial candidates would win a six-year term,
and the next twelve candidates would win a three-year term. Arroyo
ranked 13th in the elections, earning a three-year term. She was
re-elected in 1995, topping the senatorial elections with nearly 16
As a legislator, Arroyo filed over 400 bills and authored or
sponsored 55 laws during her tenure as senator, including the
Anti-Sexual Harassment Law, the Indigenous People's Rights Law, and
the Export Development Act.
The 1995 Mining Act, which allows 100% foreign ownership of
Philippine mines, has come under fire from left-wing political
Arroyo considered a run for the presidency in the 1998 election, but
was persuaded by President Fidel V. Ramos and leaders of the
administration party Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats to instead
seek the vice-presidency as the running mate of its presidential
candidate, House Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr. Though the latter lost
to popular former actor Joseph Ejercito Estrada, Arroyo won the vice
presidency by a large margin, garnering more than twice the votes of
her closest opponent, Estrada's running mate Senator Edgardo Angara.
Arroyo began her term as Vice President on June 30, 1998. She was
appointed by Estrada to a concurrent position in the cabinet as
Secretary of Social Welfare and Development.
Arroyo resigned from the cabinet in October 2000, distancing herself
from President Estrada, who was accused of corruption by a former
political supporter, Chavit Singson, Governor from Ilocos Sur. She
had initially resisted pressure from allies to speak out against
Estrada, but eventually joined calls for Estrada's resignation.
The EDSA II Revolution that catapulted Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to
power is depicted on the 200-peso bill.On January 20, 2001, after
days of political turmoil and popular revolt, the Supreme Court
declared the presidency vacant. The military and the national police
had earlier withdrawn their support for Estrada. At noon, Arroyo was
sworn in as President of the Philippines by Chief Justice Hilario
Davide, Jr. Coincidentally, Arroyo assumed office the same day as US
President George W. Bush.
Weeks later, Estrada filed a lawsuit challenging the legal basis of
the Arroyo presidency and insisting he remained the lawful
president, though adding he would not try to reclaim his post. The
Supreme Court issued its decision on March 2, 2001, asserting that
Estrada had resigned the presidency and relinquished his post. The
court unanimously voted to dismiss Estrada's petition, reaffirming
the legitimacy of Arroyo's presidency.
EDSA III uprising
On May 1, 2001, a week after Estrada was arrested on charges of
plunder, an estimated 40,000 protesters sympathetic to Estrada
degenerated into violence and stormed the presidential palace in an
attempt to force Arroyo from office. Four people died, including two
policemen, and more than 100 were wounded in clashes between
security forces and rioters. After being dispersed the crowd had
looted stores and burned cars. Arroyo declared a 'state of
rebellion' in Manila and ordered the arrests of opposition leaders
who lead the uprising and conspired to topple the government. The
state of rebellion was lifted one week later with Arroyo declaring
"the disorder has subsided".
Support for the opposition and Estrada subsequently dwindled after
the victory of administration allied candidates in the midterm
elections that was held later that month. Arroyo outlined her vision
for the country as "building a strong republic" throughout her
tenure. Her agenda consists of building up a strong bureaucracy,
lowering crime rates, increasing tax collection, improving economic
growth, and intensifying counter-terrorism efforts.
The Oakwood mutiny occurred in the Philippines on July 27, 2003. A
group of 321 armed soldiers who called themselves "Bagong
Katipuneros" led by Army Capt. Gerardo Gambala and Lt. Antonio
Trillanes IV of the Philippine Navy took over the Oakwood Premier
Ayala Center (now Ascott Makati) serviced apartment tower in Makati
City to show the Filipino people the alleged corruption of the
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration. They also stated that they
saw signs suggesting that the President was going to declare martial
Jose Pidal controversy
In August 18, 2003, Senator Panfilo Lacson accused Jose Miguel
Arroyo, the president's husband, of siphoning campaign funds into a
bank account under the fictitious name "Jose Pidal". The accusations
were never legally substantiated.
The 2004 election and subsequent rigging allegations
Although the Philippine Constitution bars a president from
reelection, it allows for the election of a person who has succeeded
as president and has served for not more than four years. In
December 2002, Arroyo made the surprise announcement that she would
not seek a new term in the Philippine general election, 2004. Ten
months later, however, she reversed her position and declared her
intention to seek a direct mandate from the people, saying "there is
a higher cause to change society... in a way that nourishes our
Arroyo faced a tough election campaign in early 2004 against Estrada
friend and popular actor Fernando Poe, Jr., senator and former
police general Panfilo Lacson, former senator Raul Roco, and
Christian evangelist Eddie Villanueva. Her campaign platform
centered on a shift to a parliamentary and federal form of
government, job creation, universal health insurance, anti-illegal
drugs, and anti-terrorism.
Arroyo lagged behind Poe in the polls prior to the campaign season,
but her popularity steadily climbed to surpass Poe's. As predicted
by pre-election surveys and exit polls, she won the election by a
margin of over a million votes against her closest rival, Fernando
Poe, Jr. She took her oath of office on June 30, 2004. In a break
with tradition, She chose to first deliver her inaugural address at
the Quirino Grandstand in Manila before departing to Cebu City for
her oath taking, the first time a Philippine president took the oath
of office outside of Luzon.
In the middle of 2005, Samuel Ong who is a former deputy director of
the country's National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) claimed to have
audio tapes of wiretapped conversations between President Arroyo and
an official of the Commission on Elections. According to Ong, the
contents of the tape prove that the 2004 national election was
rigged by Arroyo in order to win by around one million votes. On
June 27, Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to a Comelec
official, claiming it was a "lapse in judgement", but denied
influencing the outcome of the election. Attempts to impeach Arroyo
failed later that year.
Two witnesses, Antonio Rasalan and Clinton Colcol, stepped forward
in August 2006, claiming involvement in an alleged plot to alter the
results for the May 2004 elections. Rasalan claimed that he was
fully convinced that the election returns presented at the House of
Representatives were manufactured and had replaced the original
Colcol, a tabulator for the Commission on Elections (Comelec), said
that Arroyo only received 1,445 votes, while Poe received 2,141 in
South Upi, Maguindanao during the May 2004 elections.
On January 25, 2008, Pulse Asia survey (commissioned by Genuine
Opposition (GO) per former Senator Sergio Osmeña III) stated that
58% percent of Filipinos in Mindanao believed that President Gloria
Macapagal-Arroyo cheated in the Philippine general election, 2004.
70% also "believed that because of recurring allegations of election
fraud, the credibility of the balloting process in Mindanao was at a
State of Emergency
On Friday, February 24, 2006, an alleged coup d'état plot was
uncovered in the Philippines, headed by Brig. Gen. Danilo Lim.
The declaration of Proclamation No. 1017 gave Gloria Macapagal
Arroyo the power to issue warrantless (and until then
unconstitutional) arrests and to take over private institutions that
run public utilities.
The President, through the Department of Education, suspended
classes in elementary and high school levels. In response, colleges
and universities suspended classes. By virtue of PP 1017, she
declared a State of Emergency for the whole country in an attempt to
quell rebellion as her grip on power began to slip, stop lawless
violence and promote peace and stability. The government's first
move after the declaration was to disperse demonstrators,
particularly the groups picketing along EDSA. Former Philippine
president Corazon Aquino was among those that protested, along with
leftist and extreme right activists. A number of public figures were
reported to have been arrested.
After the foiling of the plot and the dispersal of the rallies, PP
1017 continued for a week on threats of military plots (such as the
military stand-off of February 26 at Fort Bonifacio headed by Col.
Ariel Querubin), violence, illegal rallies and public disturbance.
Six leftist representatives - Satur Ocampo, Teodoro Casiño, and Joel
Virador of Bayan Muna, Liza Maza of GABRIELA, and Crispin Beltran
and Rafael Mariano of Anakpawis - were charged with rebellion.
Crispin Beltran of Anakpawis was arrested on February 25 on charges
of inciting to sedition and rebellion. To avoid further arrest, the
other five found shelter at the Batasan Complex.
On Saturday, February 25, the office of the Daily Tribune, a
newspaper known as a hard-hitting critic of the Arroyo
administration, was raided. After the raid, an issuance of
Journalism Guideline followed, authored by the government in order
to cope with the "present abnormal situation", according to then
Chief of Staff Michael Defensor. The move to suppress freedom of the
press against the Daily Tribune was criticized by Reporters Without
The decree was lifted on March 3, 2006. However the opposition,
lawyers, and concerned citizens filed a complaint in the Supreme
Court contesting the constitutionality of PP 1017. The court, on May
4, declared the proclamation constitutional, but said it was illegal
to issue warrantless arrests and seize private institutions.
The Manila Peninsula Rebellion
The Peninsula Manila Rebellion was a rebellion in the Philippines on
November 29, 2007. Detained Senator Antonio Trillanes IV, General
Lim and other Magdalo officials walked out of their trial and
marched through the streets of Makati City, called for the ouster of
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, and seized the second floor of
The Peninsula Manila Hotel along Ayala Avenue. Former Vice-President
Teofisto Guingona also joined the march to the hotel.
Sen. Antonio Trillanes IV and Brigadier Gen. Danilo Lim surrendered
to authorities after an armored personnel carrier rammed into the
lobby of the hotel. Director Geary Barias declared that the standoff
at the Manila Peninsula Hotel is over as Sen. Antonio Trillanes IV,
Brig. Gen. Danilo Lim along with other junior officers agreed to
leave the hotel and surrender to Barias after the 6 hour siege.
There was difficulty getting out for a while due to the tear gas
that was covering the area where they were hiding.
Days after the mutiny, the Makati City Regional Trial Court
dismissed the rebellion charges against all the 14 civilians
involved in the siege, and ordered their release.
National Broadband Network Scandal
The Philippine National Broadband Network controversy is a political
affair that centers upon allegations of corruption primarily
involving Former Commission on Elections (COMELEC) Chairman Benjamin
Abalos, First Gentleman Mike Arroyo and President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
regarding the proposed government-managed National Broadband Network
(NBN) for the Philippines and the awarding of its construction to
the Chinese firm Zhong Xing Telecommunication Equipment Company
Limited (ZTE), a telecommunications and networking equipment
The issue has captivated Filipino politics since it erupted in
Philippine media around August 2007, largely through the articles of
newspaper columnist Jarius Bondoc of the Philippine Star. It has
also taken an interesting turn of events, including the resignation
of Abalos as COMELEC chairman, the alleged bribery of congressmen
and provincial governors (dubbed as "Bribery in the Palace"), the
unseating of Jose de Venecia, Jr. as House Speaker, and the alleged
"kidnapping" of designated National Economic and Development
Authority (NEDA) consultant-turned-NBN/ZTE witness Rodolfo Noel
"Jun" Lozada, Jr.
The Spratly Islands Joint Exploration Agreement
In connection to the Philippine National Broadband Network
controversy, The Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking (JMSU) is a
tripartite agreement between the Philippines, China and Vietnam to
conduct seismic exploration in an area spanning 142,886 square
kilometers west of Palawan. More specifically it is an agreement
between Philippine National Oil Company -Exploration Corporation (PNOC-EC),
China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) and Vietnam Oil and
Gas Corporation (PetroVietnam), that was signed in September 2004
and took effect in July 2005. JMSU has already finished the
first phase of the seismic exploration which lasted from September 1
to November 16, 2006, covering 11,000 line kilometers. A Chinese
vessel conducted the survey, Vietnam processed the data gathered and
this was interpreted by PNOC-EC in Manila. The second phase started
in October 2007, covering 11,800 line kilometers. It was supposedly
to end January 2008.
President Arroyo, President Bush and other state leaders at the 2004
APEC Trade SummitArroyo, a practicing economist, has made the
economy the focus of her presidency. Economic growth in terms of
gross domestic product has averaged 5.0% during the Arroyo
presidency from 2001 up to the first quarter of 2008. This is higher
than previous recent presidents when compared to the 3.8% average of
Aquino, the 3.7% average of Ramos, and the 2.8% average of Joseph
Estrada. The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three
decades in 2007, with real GDP growth exceeding 7%. Inflation during
the Arroyo presidency has been the lowest since 1986, averaging
A controversial expanded value added tax (e-VAT) law, considered the
centerpiece of the Arroyo administration's economic reform
agenda, was implemented in November 2005, aiming to complement
revenue-raising efforts that could plug the country's large budget
deficit. The country aims to balance the national budget by 2010.
The tax measure boosted confidence in the government's fiscal
capacity and helped to strengthen the Philippine peso, making it
East Asia's best performing currency in 2005-06. The peso
strengthened by nearly 20% in 2007, making it by far Asia's best
performing currency for the year, a fact attributed to a combination
of increased remittances from overseas Filipino workers and a strong
Arroyo's handling of the economy has earned praise from observers
including former US President Bill Clinton, who praised Arroyo for
making "tough decisions" that put the Philippine economy back in
The managing director of the World Bank, Juan Jose Daboub,
criticized the administration for not doing enough to curb
Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a controversial policy
of holiday economics, adjusting holidays to form longer weekends
with the purpose of boosting domestic tourism and allowing Filipinos
more time with their families.
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo with George W. Bush during the latter's
state visit to the Philippines in 2003.The Arroyo administration has
forged a strong relationship with the United States. Arroyo was one
of the first world leaders who expressed support for the US-led
coalition against global terrorism in the aftermath of the September
11, 2001 attacks, and remains one of its closest allies in the war
on terror. Following the US-led invasion of Iraq, in July 2003 the
Philippines sent a small humanitarian contingent which included
medics and engineers. These troops were recalled in July 2004 in
response to the kidnapping of Filipino truck driver Angelo de la
Cruz. With the hostage takers demands met, the hostage was released.
The force was previously due to leave Iraq the following month. The
early pullout drew international condemnation, with the United
States protesting against the action, saying giving in to terrorist
demands should not be an option.
Arroyo's foreign policy is anchored on building strong ties with the
United States, East Asian and Southeast Asian nations, and countries
where overseas Filipino workers work and live. In 2007, the
Philippines was host to the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu City.
On August 21, 2007, Gloria's administration asked the Senate of the
Philippines to ratify a $4bn (£2bn) trade deal with Japan (signed on
2006 with the former Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi),
which would create more than 300,000 jobs (by specifically
increasing local exports such as shrimp to Japan). Japan also
promised to hire at least 1,000 Philippine nurses. The
opposition-dominated senate objected on the ground that toxic wastes
would be sent to the Philippines; the government denied this due to
the diplomatic notes which stated that it would not be accepting
Japanese waste in exchange for economic concessions.
In 2005, Arroyo initiated a movement for an overhaul of the
constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral
republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government.
At her 2005 State of the Nation Address, she claimed "The system
clearly needs fundamental change, and the sooner the better. It's
time to start the great debate on Charter Change".
In late 2006, the House of Representatives shelved a plan to revise
the constitution through constituent assembly.
Executive Order No. 464 and calibrated preemptive response
In late September 2005, Arroyo issued an executive order stating
that demonstrations without permits would be pre-emptively stopped.
Then members of the military testified in Congressional hearings
that they were defying a direct order not to testify about their
knowledge of the election scandal. There is the issuance of
Executive Order No. 464 forbidding government officials under the
executive department from appearing in congressional inquiries
without President Arroyo's prior consent. These measures were
challenged before the Supreme Court, which apparently declared some
sections as unconstitutional.
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Gloria Arroyo flanked by United States Marines.A May 2006 Amnesty
International report expressed concern over the sharp rise in
vigilante killings of militant activists and community workers in
the Philippines. Task Force Usig, a special police unit tasked to
probe reported extra-judicial killings, by state run death squads
counts 115 murders and says most of these are the result of an
internal purge by communist rebels. Human rights groups put the
number as high as 830.
These violations were alleged to have been committed against
left-leaning organizations and party-list groups including BAYAN,
Bayan Muna and Anakpawis. These organizations accuse the Philippine
National Police and Armed Forces of the Philippines for the deaths
of these political opponents. Arroyo has condemned political
killings "in the harshest possible terms" and urged witnesses to
come forward. "The report, which Melo submitted to Arroyo last
month, reportedly linked state security forces to the murder of
militants and recommended that military officials, notably retired
major general Jovito Palparan, be held liable under the principle of
command responsibility for killings in their areas of assignment."
General Palparan who retired September 11, 2006 has been appointed
by President Arroyo to be part of the Security Council. This has
alarmed left-leaning political parties about the potential for human
An independent commission was assembled in August 2006 to
investigate the killings. Headed by former Supreme Court Justice
Jose Melo, the group known as the Melo Commission concluded that
most of the killings were instigated by the Armed Forces of the
Philippines, but found no proof linking the murder of activists to a
"national policy" as claimed by the left-wing groups. On the other
hand the report "linked state security forces to the murder of
militants and recommended that military officials, notably retired
major general Jovito Palparan, be held liable under the principle of
command responsibility for killings in their areas of assignment."
Stricter anti-terror laws have also caused some concern in recent
Under Arroyo's government, the Philippines has become second only to
Iraq as the world's riskiest place to report the news, with 23
journalists killed since 2003
In her July 23, 2007 State of the Nation Address, Arroyo has set out
her agenda for her last three years in office, and called for
legislation to deal with a spate of political killings that have
brought international criticism to her presidency. She promised to
bring peace to the troubled south, and also defended a controversial
new anti-terrorism legislation. Arroyo told the joint session of
Congress that "I would rather be right than popular." Lawmakers and
lawyers, however, were dismayed by the SONA's failure to highlight
and address this major hindrance to human rights. Specifically, the
Alternative Law Groups (ALG) echoed the lawmakers’ position that Mrs
Arroyo failed to take responsibility for the problem.
In 2007, incidences of extrajudicial killings dropped 87%, with the
decline attributed to the creation of a special task force to handle
On September 5, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed
Amnesty Proclamation 1377 for members of the Communist Party of the
Philippines and its armed wing, the New People's Army; other
communist rebel groups; and their umbrella organization, the
National Democratic Front. The amnesty will cover the crime of
rebellion and all other crimes "in pursuit of political beliefs,"
but not including crimes against chastity, rape, torture, kidnapping
for ransom, use and trafficking of illegal drugs and other crimes
for personal ends and violations of international law or convention
and protocols "even if alleged to have been committed in pursuit of
political beliefs." The National Committee on Social Integration (NCSI)
will issue a Certificate of Amnesty to qualified applicants.
Implementing rules and regulations are being drafted and the decree
will be submitted to the Senate of the Philippines and the House of
Representatives for their concurrence. The proclamation becomes
effective only after Congress has concurred.
On October 25, 2007, Arroyo granted pardon to Joseph Estrada based
on the recommendation by the Department of Justice. Press Secretary
Ignacio Bunye quoted the signed Order: "In view hereof in pursuant
of the authority conferred upon me by the Constitution, I hereby
grant Executive clemency to Joseph Ejercito Estrada, convicted by
the Sandiganbayan of plunder and imposed a penalty of reclusion
perpetua. He is hereby restored to his civil and political rights."
Bunye noted that Estrada committed in his application not to seek
public office, and he would be free from his Tanay resthouse on
October 26, noon.
The Sumilao Farmers' March
On December 3, 2007, 55 farmers of the Higaonon tribe from Sumilao,
Bukidnon arrived in Metro Manila, 2 months after their march through
13 provinces from Mindanao to ask the government to stop the
conversion of the land they are claiming into a hog farm. The
farmers petitioned the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) to issue
a cease-and-desist order (CDO) on the contested 144-hectare property
in Barangay (village) San Vicente, Sumilao which San Miguel Foods
Inc. (SMFI) converted into a hog farm. The Supreme Court of the
Philippines had earlier dismissed the farmers' rights lack of legal
standing. Farmer Tuminhay stated that: “Our titles were cancelled
because Norberto Quisumbing was allowed to convert his land on
condition that he would implement a five-year development plan.
Since he did not implement the plan, it is only proper that DAR
renew the CARP process and give us back our titles.” Quisumbing's
development plan for the property included the establishment of a
development academy, a cultural center, an institute for livelihood
science, a museum, library, golf course, a sports development
complex, an agro-industrial park, forest development and support
facilities, and construction of a 360-room hotel, restaurant,
housing projects, inter alia. On December 17, 2007, Gloria
Macapagal-Arroyo revoked the conversion order on the disputed
144-hectare lot in Sumilao, Bukidnon, resulting to the return of the
land ownership to the 55 members of the Higaonon tribe farmers who
marched 1,700 kilometers for 2 months from Mindanao to Metro Manila.
The order, signed by Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita, reads:
“Wherefore premises considered and as recommended by DAR, the
petition for cancellation and/or revocation of the conversion order
covering 144 hectares of land...is hereby granted.” San Miguel Foods
as landowner must be paid the current value of the property before
the land can be distributed to the farmers.
Criticism and public perception
According to a survey conducted by Pulse Asia from October 20 to 31,
a pluralty of Filipinos (at 42%, beating former president and
strongman Ferdinand Marcos by 7%) consider Arroyo the "most corrupt
(president) in the history of the Philippines". A November 30 -
December 3, 2007 Social Weather Stations survey found Arroyo's net
satisfaction rating at -16 (32% satisfied minus 48% dissatisfied).
The Social Weather Stations 2nd Quarter 2008 survey revealed that
Arroyo is the 'Most unpopular leader', since 1986. Her net
satisfaction rating (the difference between those satisfied and
dissatisfied) dived to -38 points from -26 in March, 2007. It was a
12-point drop from net -26 (27% satisfied, 54% dissatisfied) in the
last March 28 to 31, 2008 survey. It was the 4th consecutive drop
since June 2007's neutral -3. Her previous worst was a -33 rating in